Most smallholders struggle to increase their productivity and resilience. They lack access to output
and input markets, as well as to advice and finance. Many live in parts of the world where the
impacts of climate change are likely to be fiercest, yet they have the least capacity to address this.
Smallholder farming in most of the developing world emits few greenhouse gases (GHG), but has a
huge need to become more resilient. A more serious challenge is extensification, which is often
associated with forest destruction. Both drive the need for more intensive use of existing farmland.
If not, developing countries will face larger food imports, faster deforestation, and heavier