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Fisheries and aquaculture make an important contribution to food security and the reduction of poverty. Together, they can offer a wide range of advantages in terms of inputs of energy, fresh water, land, carbon emissions, as well as providing high protein yields. In addition, recent innovations and developments in non-food fish, especially on the by-products from food fish production, have led to new marine products such as bio-active compounds, marine proteins and food processing aids that help eliminate waste, increase efficiency and add value. Recognition of the potential contribution from the sector in all its diversity will drive further improvement in production methods, particularly in the management of fisheries in the developing world.